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A living wage for real, living people

A living wage for real, living people


In November, Arizonans will have an opportunity to vote on the first minimum wage initiative since 2006.

Proposition 206 will increase the wage from $8.05 to $10 starting on New Year’s Day, to $10.50 a year after that, to $11 a year after that and to $12 in 2020.

Minimum wage initiatives in Seattle, San Francisco and New York have graciously provided a Petri dish to examine the effects of minimum wage increases on what many call a “living wage.”

The verdict? Not much has changed.

That’s right, fire didn’t fall from the sky and land on every mom n’ pop shop trying to put kids through college. Thousands didn’t lose their jobs, resulting in unprecedented unemployment. Prices didn’t skyrocket, driving poor people out of the market for basic goods.

In Seattle’s case, the rate of employment tripled that of the national average after the city voted to raise the minimum wage in 2014.

A recent study from the University of Washington failed to “find compelling evidence that the minimum wage has caused significant increases in business failure rates.” It explicitly states that any closures were far dominated by business openings.

New York only voted to raise its minimum wage earlier this year, but economic analysts are already chomping at the chance to predict how it will affect the nation’s largest city.

A recent study out of UC-Berkeley speculates the boost in wages will only raise payroll costs by 3.2 percent across the entire city over the next six years. Businesses can absorb this cost by increasing prices .14 percent per year.

It also estimates a .04 percent increase in employment, which would amount to 3,200 jobs by 2021.

The same group concluded a Santa Clara County initiative would increase payroll costs by 1 percent and could account for the cost with a .2 percent increase in prices by 2019.

We’re talking about pennies, here. Pennies to the consumer and thousands in annual earnings to minimum-wage workers. Somehow, the doomsday scenario just isn’t adding up.

But enough of the data.

When it comes down to it, responsibility lies with business owners. When we envision our perfect economy, do we enjoy seeing mega chains and international brands take over our consumption? Not usually.

We like the idea of going to Sally’s hardware shop and Bill’s flower stand, chatting about the latest ball game, asking about the kids and giving our hard-earned cash to people we don’t mind sharing it with.

Aztec Press cartoon by Coral Yankey

Aztec Press cartoon by Coral Yankey

These small businesses are indeed the backbone of a healthy economy and it isn’t the fault of their employees that they struggle.

It’s the mega chains that offer prices too low to compete with and use cost-benefit analyses that tell them how little they can get away with paying their employees.

The medicine for this sickness is boosting those at the very bottom of our economic ladder. Help them reinvest in their immediate markets.

The goal is to get a majority of Americans to a place where they can start saving money. They’ll put it in a bank, where Sally and Bill can apply for a business loan and become providers in our community.

This isn’t an argument won in Economics 101. The real-world examples speak for themselves and the important thing about the real-world examples is they involve real people with real lives.

 Nick Meyers is a former Aztec Press editor who now attends the University of Arizona, where he studies Journalism and Philosophy, Politics, Economics and Law, or PPEL. He actually thinks the minimum wage is a silly argument because robots will end up taking your job.

Online hyperlinks:

UW Study:

Berkeley, NY:

Berkeley, SF:

Increase could hurt workers

Increase could hurt workers



No one works at minimum wage in my family except me. I’m the youngest. A proposal on the November ballot would not provide a whole lot of improvement.

Proposition 206 would increase the minimum wage from its dormant state at $8.05 an hour to $10 in 2017, then slowly creep to a ceiling of $12 an hour in 2020.

At first it looks good because that means more money in your pockets if you work at minimum wage. You get to circulate more money into the economy. Go you!

You can now become a contributing member of society to our free market in the US of A.

It’ll start potential job growth in all fields, as shown by the Economic Policy Institute in 2006. The Institute said a wage increase would create 85,000 jobs, and they weren’t wrong.

The unemployment rate for Arizona went from about 4.2 percent to 3.7 percent in 2006-07, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Take a look at what happened next, however. After it dropped, unemployment quickly spiked back up to even higher than it was in 2006, to a little over 11 percent.

Of course this was before the 2008 recession, and I’m not saying that increasing the minimum wage will definitely increase unemployment in 2017.

I am saying the Bureau, and many minimum-wage working Americans, didn’t factor in long-term effects. Those effects include inflation for products they normally buy, and a shortage of popular items.

While the rise in minimum wage may have motivated people to search harder for jobs, it didn’t necessarily mean employers were looking to hire more people.

Of roughly 1,200 business and human resource professionals surveyed by the Congressional Budget Office, 38 percent said they would lay off some employees. Another 54 percent said they would reduce hiring levels in 2006.

So much for the .5 percent decrease in unemployment.

Why don’t we talk about relativity? It is true the minimum wage has not kept up with inflation. It was $6.75 in the new millennium, when rich people were making money faster and the poor were losing it faster. As always, though, there’s a but.

A pay raise won’t make everything else static. We’ll see price jumps in just about everything we buy.

Beef ribeye steak currently costs $5.99 per pound at Frys. After the 67 percent increase in wages, how do we know Frys won’t raise its prices by that much? Prices might get raised even more, because grocery stores have a plethora of employees.

Inflation is very real and it happens very quickly.

And will businesses even provide raises? The other option is to just fire employees

Yes, the minimum wage will have great impact on the economy and on the consumers in the economy. However, the little people will only reap benefits for a short time before prices increase.

In a perfect world, a wage increase means people spend money on items beyond essentials, without causing inflation.

But let’s face it, America isn’t perfect and neither are we. An increase in the minimum wage will only hurt us unless people make big and, more importantly, right decisions.

Nicholas Trujillo believes in both sides for minimum wage but doesn’t trust Americans to make the right decisions with the pay increase.

Trickle-down economics doesn’t work

Trickle-down economics doesn’t work


The theory behind trickle-down economics is that tax breaks for the wealthy will in turn benefit the middle class because the extra monetary gain “trickles” down.

The idea is that all members of society benefit from this growth, which comes from those with the resources and skills to increase productive output.

In reality, trickle-down economics is politically influenced and has no scientific backing.

The closest thing to trickle-down is supply-side economics, which argues for creating economic growth by investing in capital and lowering barriers on production of goods and services. The theory says tax cuts support economic growth, whether for business or for employees.

The biggest example of trickle-down economics in action came during the Reagan era in the 1980s. Arthur Laffer, known as “the father of supply-side economics,” was the founding member of the Reagan Executive Advisory Committee in 1980.

He’s the creator of the Laffer Curve, a chart that seeks to explain the benefits of lowering taxes to create monetary output.

At zero, the chart shows that no taxes equal no government income. As taxes increase, so does income. When taxes become too high, however, they don’t create any economic growth.

The problem? Laffer neglected to number the curve, so there really is no way to see the actual increase of revenue based on tax rates.

Now, some would say that innovation spurs progress and creates economic growth in the middle class.

The middle class prospered from the late 1800s to the 1920s with new industries emerging such as electricity and telephones. Henry Ford’s Model T assembly line increased productivity 10 times and he doubled his workers’ wages.

Trickle-down economics seems to work in this scenario, right? The major business prospers, and so then do middle-class workers. Unfortunately, modern businesses haven’t shared the wealth.

Tax breaks were prevalent for the top 10 percent in both the Reagan and Bush administrations. All we have to show for it is a tripling of the national debt and a gap increase between wealthy Americans and the middle class.

It’s a reverse Robin Hood ideology where the rich are supposed to use their money to give to the poor. Instead they keep it for themselves like a regular Prince John.

 Brittney Young will graduate from PCC this fall. She hopes to transfer to the University of Arizona to study English and Law.

International trade key to state growth

International trade key to state growth

Future leaders discuss cross-border trade issues 

EDITORS’ NOTE: Because this story is international in scope, Aztec Press is offering it in Spanish as well as English.


For more than 50 years, the Arizona Town Hall group has reached out to its members across the state to involve them in civil discourse on a variety of issues that affect Arizona.

Their website at states: “Arizona Town Hall’s five decades of work has guided our state’s civic, political, business and community leadership in identifying and implementing policies that have helped to shape, grow and improve. Arizona has been successful because of our members.”

Pima Community College hosted a once-a-semester teleconference for Future Leaders from local high schools, colleges and universities on March 29. The live feed was sent to groups throughout the state.

The focus of this semester’s conference was cross-border economic development between Arizona and Mexico.

Presenter Juan Ciscomani, director of the Southern Arizona and Sonora offices of Arizona Gov. Doug Ducey, said Mexico is the primary trade partner for Arizona, with an average of $17 billion in revenue.

Ducey is dedicated to further expanding trade opportunities with Mexico, Ciscomani said. The governor traveled to Mexico City last summer to discuss increasing trade in the public and private sectors.

A group discussion began when the teleconference ended. The discussion leader was Celeste Nunez, a science major in PCC’s Community Campus online program.

She will gather ideas from the local group discussion and send them to Arizona Town Hall President Tara Anderson. Nunez, the only student member of the board of directors for the Arizona Town Hall, was invited to join last year by Anderson after Nunez advocated for a student member.

She attended a similar event for future leaders, and was persistent in requesting student participation.

“I suggested that the board have a student member,” she said. “Because there were none, I offered myself for this.”

She is the first student board member in the 50 years that Arizona Town Hall has existed.

Juan Ciscomani, director de las oficinas de Arizona y Sonora meridional de la gobernadora de Arizona, Doug Ducey. /  Juan Ciscomani, director of the Southern Arizona and Sonora offices of Arizona Gov. Doug Ducey.

Juan Ciscomani, director de las oficinas de Arizona y Sonora meridional de la gobernadora de Arizona, Doug Ducey. / Juan Ciscomani, director of the Southern Arizona and Sonora offices of Arizona Gov. Doug Ducey.



Gayle Bell y Celeste Núñez, coordinadores de la teleconferencia en el Colegio Pima. / Gayle Bell and Celeste Nunez, coordinators for the teleconference.

Gayle Bell y Celeste Núñez, coordinadores de la teleconferencia en el Colegio Pima. / Gayle Bell and Celeste Nunez, coordinators for the teleconference.

Futuros líderes discuten temasde comercio transfronterizo


Durante más de 50 años, el grupo de Arizona Town Hall ha puesto en contacto con sus miembros en todo el estado para que participen en la discusión civilizada sobre una variedad de temas que afectan a Arizona.

Su sitio web en declara “de Arizona Town Hall de cinco décadas de trabajo ha guiado cívica, política, los negocios de nuestro estado y líderes de la comunidad en la identificación y aplicación de las políticas que han ayudado a dar forma, crecer y mejorar Arizona ha tenido éxito porque de nuestros miembros.”

Pima Community College organizó una teleconferencia una vez al semestre para los futuros líderes locales altas escuelas, colegios y universidades el 29 de marzo La transmisión en vivo fue enviado a grupos de todo el estado.

El enfoque de la conferencia de este semestre fue el desarrollo económico transfronterizo entre Arizona y México. Un presentador, Juan Ciscomani, director de las oficinas de Arizona y Sonora meridional de la gobernadora de Arizona, Doug Ducey, dijo que México es el principal socio comercial de Arizona con un promedio de $ 17 mil millones en ingresos.

Ducey se dedica a ampliar aún más las oportunidades comerciales con México, dijo Ciscomani. El gobernador viajó a la Ciudad de México el verano pasado para discutir el aumento del comercio en los sectores públicos y privados.

Una discusión comenzó cuando el grupo terminó teleconferencia. El líder de la discusión fue Celeste Núñez, un comandante de la ciencia en el programa en línea Comunidad Campus del PCC.

Se reunirá a las ideas de la discusión del grupo local y enviarlos al presidente de Arizona Town Hall Tara Anderson. Núñez es el único miembro del estudiante de la junta directiva para el Arizona Town Hall. Ella fue invitado a unirse el año pasado por Anderson después de Núñez abogó por un miembro del estudiante.

Había asistido a un evento similar para los futuros líderes, y fue persistente en el que solicita la participación del estudiante.

“Me sugirió que la Junta tiene un miembro de estudiante,” dijo. “Debido a que no había ninguno, me ofrecí para esto.”

Ella es el primer miembro de la junta de los estudiantes en los 50 años que Arizona Town Hall ha existido.

Mental Health Month is just a beginning

Mental Health Month is just a beginning


One in five Americans will be affected by a mental condition during their lifetime, according to research by the National Alliance on Mental Illness, the nation’s largest grassroots mental-health organization.
Sixty-seven years ago, the nonprofit Mental Health America set May aside as Mental Health Month. While much has changed in the past six decades regarding mental health treatment in America, there is still work to be done. The group said that last year its educational materials were seen and used by 19 million people.
In Southern Arizona, organizations participating in Mental Health Month include the local chapter of NAMI and Interfaith Community Services.
NAMI Southern Arizona has been around since 1983, and offers services to both Spanish and English speakers. It devotes its efforts to educating, advocating and providing support to all those affected by mental illness.
Interfaith Community Services has helped Pima County residents of many different faiths since 1985. According to ICS, the organization provides more than 73,000 services to over 36,500 people every year.
With the organizations working in Southern Arizona, there are many ways to get involved in Mental Health Month.
NAMI offers pre-made, easy-to-use resources that emphasize community involvement and openness among friends, families and those with a mental health condition.
Its stigma-free pledge is perhaps one of the simplest ways to start a conversation about mental health. The pledge involves three steps that anyone from any walk of life can take to help a cause that impacts millions of Americans.
Step 1. Educate yourself and others.
Mental health advocates emphasize that stigmatization is still a serious issue for the community. Learning that mental health conditions are not derived from weakness, poor character or bad upbringing is an important step for everyone to take.
Tearing down harmful stereotypes about those with mental health conditions is also critical to bringing mental health care into the modern era.
Step 2. See the person, not the illness.
The Mental Illness Research Association estimated that 22 percent of the population has a mental health condition.
Sometimes, it’s easy to forget that this statistic has millions of unique faces with unique stories. Their life story does not end with a diagnosis.
Step 3. Take action on mental health issues.
According to NAMI, 70 to 90 percent of those with a mental health challenge who sought treatment saw improvement in their quality of life.
It is important to remember that mental health crosses party lines, religious affiliations and economic status.
In order to truly make a difference, everyone must do their part to better the lives of those with a mental health condition in the most compassionate way they can.

Get involved in Mental Health Month, but don’t let the work stop at the end of May.Turn Southern Arizona into an opportunity hotspot for help, healing and profound respect for fellow human beings.

Pg07-Sad Jaime

Aztec Press illustration by Larry Gaurano

TOP 10: Revolutionary women

TOP 10: Revolutionary women


In honor of International Women’s Day on March 8, here are 10 women who fought for the rights of gender, people and/or their country.

Their political thoughts and actions revolutionized their own era and set a precedent for today.

Angela Davis (1944- )

Angela Davis was a political activist, a scholar and at one time a most-wanted fugitive from the FBI in the 1960s.

She held membership in the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, the Black Panther Party for Self Defense and the American Communist Party. That involvement cost her a position as an assistant professor at the University of California-Los Angeles in 1970. Then Gov. Ronald Reagan attempted to have her barred from teaching in California.

Davis was accused in 1970 of supplying the guns in the death of federal judge Harold J. Haley. She fled, which created a national manhunt. She was caught in New York but later acquitted in 1972.

Davis retired as a professor in the History of Consciousness and the Feminist Studies departments at the University of California, Santa Cruz.

Vilma Lucila Espín (1930-2007)

Considered “The First Lady of the Cuban Revolution,” Vilma Lucila Espín fought alongside the Castro brothers and later married Raul Castro, Cuba’s current president.

She was born into a wealthy family in Cuba. Her father was a lawyer for the rum company Bacardi. The revolution viewed Bacardi’s business exploits as treating Cuba like a “Yankee playground.”

After becoming one the first chemical engineers from the island, Espín joined the opposition against the dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista.

She died on June 18, 2007 at the age of 77.

Janet Jagan (1920-2009)

Born in Chicago, Janet Jagen became the first female president of Guyana and fought for labor rights in the United States and abroad.

After receiving a college degree, she and her husband moved to Guyana in 1923. They founded the People’s Progressive Party, which promoted Marxist ideals

Their campaign to decolonize Guyana from the United Kingdom earned them jail time under the order of British Prime Minister Winston Churchill.

There were many attempts to remove her from leadership roles, some supported and funded by the U.S. government. However, Jagan became president of Guyana in 1997. By then, the country had gained its independence from the UK.

Jagan died on March 28, 2009 at the age of 88.

Phoolan Devi (1963-2001)

Phoolan Devi was a modern Robin Hood: loved by the poor, despised by the rich. She began a streak of violent robberies across northern and central India in the 1970s, targeting the rich and sharing her bounties with the poor.

In February 1983, Devi surrendered to authorities. She negotiated her sentence with the Indian government and was sentenced to 11 years in prison.

Within two years of her release in 1994, she was elected to India’s Parliament. She continued advocating for the poor, but this time through political action and mobilization of the people.

Three masked gunmen assassinated Devi in her home on July 25, 2001. She was 37.

Petra Herrera (Unknown)

The most well known soldaderas of Mexico’s second revolution, Herrera went into combat with the men by disguising her gender. Her role in the revolution was to blow up bridges, which hindered the oppositions from gaining ground on the revolutionaries. She participated in the second battle of Torreón on May 30, 1914 along with 400 other women. Although she showed great leadership and comradery, Pancho Villa refused to promote her to general.

She left Villa’s battalion to form her own all-woman battalion.

Blanca Canales (1906-1996)

In 1948, a bill known as the Gag Bill, or Law 53, was introduced in Puerto Rico. The bill made it a crime to own or display a Puerto Rican flag, sing a patriotic tune, speak or write of independence, or meet with anyone or hold any assembly in favor of Puerto Rican independence.

Blanca Canales was a member of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party. On Oct. 30, 1950, the nationalist took up arms that were stored in her home and marched into the small town of Jayuya. They took over the police station and raised the Puerto Rican flag in defiance of the law.

The actions prompted the United States to declare martial law. Officials ordered the U.S. Army and Air Force to engage the revolutionaries.

The Nationalists held on against the Americans for three days, but were later arrested and sentenced to life in prison.

After 17 years in prison, Canales was granted a full pardon and released  in 1967. She died on July 25, 1996 at the age of 90.

Susan B. Anthony (1820-1906)

During the campaign season, it is sometimes hard to remember that U.S. women were not allowed to vote for almost 180 years after the country gained its independence.

Susan B. Anthony met Elizabeth Cady Stanton in 1851 and the two toured the country arguing the case for women’s suffrage, the right to vote.

Many attempted to stop her efforts. In 1872, she was arrested for voting illegally in the presidential election and a judge later fined her $100. She refused to pay and never did.

Her efforts pressured Congress to pass the 19th Amendment, which prohibits any U.S. citizen from being denied the right to vote based on gender.

Anthony died on March 13, 1906 at the age of 86.

Rasmea Odeh (1948- )

Rasmea Odeh is a Palestinian women who was convicted in 1969 for her membership in the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine and for her alleged involvement in a grocery store bombing in Jerusalem. She was sentenced to life in prison and was tortured while incarcerated in Israeli prison.

She was released after 10 years and migrated in 1995 to the United States from Jordan. She became a naturalized citizen and works as associate director of the Arab American Action Network in Chicago.

Odeh was convicted of immigration fraud on Nov. 10, 2014. She was sentenced in March 2015 to 18 months in federal prison and stripped of her U.S. citizenship. She will be deported to Jordan once she finishes serving her time.

Malala Yousafzai (1997-)

Age is but a number, even for a revolutionary. Malala Yousafzai began advocaying at age 12 for women’s rights, particularly the right to an education in Pakistan.

Her advocacy resulted in the Taliban sporadically closing schools by force and in death threats against her.

A gunman shot Yousafzai in the head on Oct. 9, 2012 while she was traveling home from school. She survived despite the serious injury.

In 2014, she won the Nobel Peace Prize, becoming the youngest person to receive it. She continues to speak out on the importance of education for all.

Comandante Ramona (1959-2006)

Using a nom de guerre, Comandante Ramona was a Tzotzil guerilla and activist who led the rebels of the Zapatista National Liberation Army into the Mexican town of San Cristobal de las Casas on New Year’s Day 1994.

The activists sought land, jobs, housing, food, healthcare, justice and democracy. In addition to protesting the North American Free Trade Agreement, Ramona demanded an end to hundreds of years of exploitation and marginalization of indigenous peoples of Mexico.

She died on Jan.6, 2006 from kidney cancer.

Her real name and details of her pre-revolutionary life remain unknown.

Immigration policy: Presidential candidates offering drastically different viewpoints

Immigration policy: Presidential candidates offering drastically different viewpoints


The topic of immigration is most evident within the American cultural pool. When put against the backdrop of the current presidential campaign, it is clear that it is a useful topic for gaining political support and, in a broader sense, political power.

Yet when it comes to immigration, the tone from the candidates is brash and adverse, particularly from the right.

It is safe to say that the mainstream media has beaten a dead horse over the comments Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump made about legal and undocumented Mexicans in the U.S. and on his plans to combat this “threat” to the United States.

There is a more stringent initiative on immigration that has been supported by 13 of the 17 initial Republican candidates: the political position of ending birthright citizenship and, in essence, striking the 14th Amendment from the Constitution. That position came into play in August 2015.

The Library of Congress defines the 14th Amendment as having “granted citizenship to ‘all persons born or naturalized in the United States,’” which included former slaves recently freed. In addition, it forbids states from denying any person “life, liberty or property, without due process of law” or to “deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.” 1

The amendment’s main focus in recent months has shifted from the 3.9 million Afro-American slaves that were freed by 1860 2 to the 55 million Latinos living in the U.S, with American citizenship in 2015. 3

Some Republican presidential candidates have been lukewarm when it comes to the 14th Amendment. New Jersey Gov. Chris Christie has said we should re-examine the amendment. 4 

Sen. Rand Paul (R-Ky.) was quoted saying that he doesn’t “think the 14th Amendment was meant to apply to illegal aliens. It was meant to apply to the children of slaves.” 5

Other candidates are hotter when it comes to the 14th Amendment. Louisiana Gov. Bobby Jindal tweeted on Aug. 17, 2015 that “we need to end birthright citizenship for illegal immigrants.” 6 Sen. Lindsey Graham (R-S.C.) has said there needs be a change in the amendment because undocumented immigrants will simply “drop and leave” their kids. 7

The right has picked their side on this issue. Their stance is that the 14th Amendment and birthright citizenship is long due for a re-examination or, in an effort to stop the increase of undocumented immigrants coming into the country, the amendment must be abolished so that those granted citizenship and those seeking out citizenship are deterred.

However, an agreement between two countries that granted citizenship to a mass of people, 20 years before the 14th Amendment was added to the Constitution.

Feb. 2 marked the 168-year anniversary of the signing of the Treaty of Peace, Friendship, Limits and Settlement between the United States and Mexico, better known as the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which ended the Mexican-American War.

The biggest takeaway from the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was the cession of Mexican land to the United States. Almost 55 percent of Mexico’s land, including Arizona, Texas, New Mexico, California, Nevada, Utah and parts of Colorado, was given to the United States.

There are some caveats in the treaty that are not discussed as openly today. Article 9 of the treaty states that “The Mexicans who … shall not preserve the character of citizens of the Mexican Republic … shall be incorporated into the Union of the United States and be admitted at the proper time to the enjoyment of all the rights of citizens of the United States..” 8

Mexican people had a choice to make. We either go back to what is left of Mexico or we stay on the land that we’ve been on for hundreds of years. The collective choice was clear, as more than 90 percent of Mexicans chose American citizenship.

Article 10 of the treaty would honor and validate all land grants made to Mexicans either by the Mexican government or Spain in the new territories that belong to the United States. This granted the newfound citizens land to live on and work on as U.S. citizens free of harassment.

However this was not honored as the United States Senate eliminated Article 10 from the treaty without consulting Mexico and, most importantly, its new citizens. 9

There is a difference between this treaty and the talks on the 14th Amendment. That difference, however, revolves on one issue: the right to citizenship for a mass of Latin Americans.

The talk and behavior from the Republican Party, in wanting to get rid of the 14th Amendment and birthright citizenship, has never taken the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo into consideration.

It is lost context because it contradicts the whole political point they are trying to make.

They cannot take away the citizenship of almost 64 percent of the population by eliminating an amendment, because there’s a treaty to back up the citizenship of those people. 10

Put aside the politics of it all. The Southwest is historically, culturally and geographically indigenous and mestizo—a fusion of indigenous and European.

Mexican-Americans of the Chicano Movement have used this land seceded by the United States and have reclaimed it for themselves as Aztlán, the ancestral home of the Aztec people.

The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo works as the constitution of the Chicano people, granting them right to this land and all the civil rights that come with it.

Context is everything. Without it, many phrases or situations can become awkward or false.

In discussing the 14th Amendment and the elimination of birthright citizenship, the lost context of this treaty between Mexico and the United States is important, because without that context it is what Mexicans like to call “Una pendejada!” which translates into someone saying or doing something real stupid.















Hillary Clinton wants comprehensive immigration reform that creates a pathway to citizenship. She also wants to end family detention and close private immigrant detention centers. She defends President Barak Obama’s executive actions to provide deportation relief for DREAMers and parents of Americans.



Bernie Sanders wants a “fair and humane” immigration policy, including “parole in place” for urgent humanitarian cases, stopping the notion that the border must be secure before legalization can happen, and ensuring that the border remains secure and protects local communities.






Ben Carson wants to secure the border, solve the problem of the existing undocumented immigrant population in the United States, and end birthright citizenship granted by the 14th Amendment.


 Ted Cruz wants to build a wall that works, triple border security, and put in place surveillance and biometric tracking to secure the border.

Ted Cruz wants to build a wall that works, triple border security, and put in place surveillance and biometric tracking to secure the border.


John Kasich wants to focus on the border, and believes it is a “silly argument” to ship 11 million undocumented immigrants back to Mexico, and seal the border with Mexico.

John Kasich wants to focus on the border, and believes it is a “silly argument” to ship 11 million undocumented immigrants back to Mexico, and seal the border with Mexico.



Marco Rubio wants to eliminate federal funding for sanctuary cities, hire 20,000 new Border Patrol agents, and install $4 billion in new cameras and sensors on the border.


Donald J. Trump wants to build a permanent wall on our southern border and make Mexico pay for it, triple the number of ICE officials and end birthright citizenship granted by the 14th Amendment.

Donald J. Trump wants to build a permanent wall on our southern border and make Mexico pay for it, triple the number of ICE officials and end birthright citizenship granted by the 14th Amendment.

The name’s Bond... Pima County bonds

The name’s Bond… Pima County bonds


With all the excitement over presidential debates, campaign rallies and whatever came out of Donald Trump’s mouth this week, it can be difficult to remember that we have local elections this year.

Pima County voters will head to the voting booths on Nov. 3 to vote in our local elections, which is arguably much more important than selecting our future president. However, due to the media monopolization of the presidential race, local elections often get over looked.

This year, Tucson has the opportunity to approve or deny more than $800 million infrastructure and economic stimulus packages. Nearly a billion dollars could be spent improving our roads, parks, neighborhoods and businesses, but only if voters approve.

Members of the Pima County community have spent the last nine years developing seven distinct proposals worth nearly $100 million apiece to be paid for with general obligation bonds.

A 25-member committee has held more than 100 hearings to gather public insight as to what specific projects comprise each bond and these seven propositions are the culmination of nearly a decade of debate and compromise.

Bonds are similar to loans from private investors, except these loans are payed for by taxpayers. Over the next 15 years, property taxes will increase to fund these projects.

But worry not, for the average property owner tax will increase by a mere $17.54 per year while the highest valued properties ($250,000 or more for 13 percent of primary residences) will increase by $28.75 per year.

While it seems the vast majority of the public supports these propositions, there are some who disagree with the justification of spending $800 million of taxpayers’ money. One group, Taxpayers Against Pima Bonds, has even created a website (that belongs in 1996) to persuade voters against voting for the bonds.

The main argument against the bonds is that businesses will experience a much higher tax increase than homeowners. This is partially due to the fact that average commercial property is valued at roughly six times that of residential property. The average business owner can expect a tax increase of about $200 per year.

As compelling an argument as it may be, the life of a business depends on the lives of its customers and these packages not only stimulate economic development and tourism, but transportation and public health as well; all of which are beneficial to businesses as well as citizens.

Additionally, Pima County has an exemplary history with bonds and currently holds a AA credit rating, the second highest possible. Since 1974, Pima County voters have passed 54 bonds worth $2.03 billion in 12 elections. Only four have ever been denied.

The decision is ultimately left to the voter. So to help you decide here is a brief summary of each of the seven propositions. For more information, head to


Proposition 425: Road and Highway Improvements

Total: $200 million

This is the largest proposal this cycle with the majority of the spending designated to road repair and pavement preservation to be completed over the next 12 years. It’s no secret that Tucson’s roads are in desperate need of repair and in tandem with Prop 431 for flood control and drainage, this $200 million will go further than funds for repairs in the past.

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Proposition 426: Economic Development, Libraries and Workforce Training

Total: $91.4 million

What else does Tucson need? Business! This package is aimed at helping the unemployed prepare for and land a job as well as help out existing businesses. The largest parts of the package are the $20 million going to the University of Arizona Tech Park for a new building; $18 million for the new Southern Arizona Regional Orientation Center, a tourist resource for learning more about the Southwest; and $15 million for the Oro Valley Business Accelerator, a center for industry and academia to collaborate on research.

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Proposition 427: Tourism Promotion

Total: $98.6 million

While the proposition sounds like it’s aimed towards tourists, much of this package goes towards places Tucsonans love to visit as well. The Music Hall and Leo Rich theaters are the big winners of this proposition, as both are slated to receive renovations. The rest of the funding will go towards many of Tucson’s museums and the zoo.

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Proposition 428: Parks and Recreation Facilities

Total: $191.5 million

The second largest proposal on the ballot, Proposition 428 will funnel money into several of Tucson’s parks for renovations and expansions. Kino Sports Complex would receive $25 million for a new indoor sports complex and new fields and $3.5 million for a velodrome.

About $77 million will go towards various recreational facilities like YMCA, municipal golf courses and swimming pools and the remaining $85 million will be spent improving more than 20 parks in Pima County.

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Proposition 429: Public Health, Welfare, Safety, Neighborhoods and Housing

Total: $105 million

Nearly a quarter of this package will go towards improvements in Pima County’s most “stressed” neighborhoods for improvements such as street lamps, sidewalks, parks and community in the interest of reducing many negative societal impacts such as crime and drug abuse.

Other funding will go towards the Pima County Affordable Housing Program ($20 million), Pima County Medical Examiner ($15 million) and the Sahuarita Food Bank ($300,000).

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Proposition 430: Natural Area Conservation and Historic Preservation

Total: $112 million

This one is interesting as nearly the entire proposition aims to spend $95 million on a land acquisitions. The proposal would allow the county to purchase up to 450,000 acres of private and state land in order to maintain and facilitate wildlife and environmental preservation.

Though the county may not necessarily purchase all the eligible land, the land it does purchase becomes public and open to hiking, biking and horseback riding. The county will place new trails and trailheads that will be open to the public.

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Proposition 431: Flood Control and Drainage

Total: $16.9 million

This one is sure to be a favorite among voters, as it aims to better prepare Tucson’s rivers for the monsoon season. Almost half of the bond ($7 million) will be spent to reinforce the banks of the Santa Cruz and Rillito rivers and Canada del Oro, connecting river parks, bike paths and trails along both banks.

Other parts of the proposition will go to the Tohono O’odham San Xavier District ($2 million) for drainage improvements and acquiring flood-prone land for the county ($5 million) to relocate residents who may be at risk.

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Guest  Commentary

Guest Commentary

I want to emphasize that I love Pima Community College. I’ve always felt so lucky to work in higher education. Not everyone has the opportunity to make a living doing something that they love and feel passionately about. I love our mission of “providing educational pathways that ensure student success and enhance the academic, economic and cultural vitality of our students and diverse community,” and work hard to promote it every day through my words and actions.
The new media policy, which I learned about from the Arizona Daily Star over the weekend, appears to conflict with our institutional mission, although I’m sure that was not the intent. However, when priorities shift from “students first” to preservation of our reputation (i.e. “present[ing] the College in the best light”), we lose sight of our North Star, our guiding principle. Our College Values, which “characterize the way in which we accomplish our mission,” mention “evidence-based continuous improvement practices,” “accountability and transparency,” and “open and honest communication.” A policy that only authorizes certain people within the College (“Marketing and Communication” and “on occasion, other College personnel”) to communicate specific and predetermined information does not support any of these ideals.
A truly student-centric approach would welcome constructive criticism as an opportunity to pinpoint problems within our institution in the interests of the student, and by extension, the community. Employees at all levels, even those who are considered “rank and file,” are stakeholders in our organization. Without the ability to engage in truly open dialogue and provide candid feedback, we undermine the importance of critical thinking, which is an essential component of the caliber of education we strive to provide to our community.
The volume of critical (and often deserved) press we’ve received in the past due to lack of openness and transparency under previous leadership has understandably left us feeling a bit wary of media attention. However, it was precisely such media attention that led us to make many necessary changes in how we conduct ourselves as an institution. In the spirit of “continuous improvement,” it’s in our best interests to foster authentic dialogue. We certainly  risk potential embarrassment by allowing forthcoming, candid communication with which we might not always agree. However, appearing to stifle free speech or engage candidly with the public that we both support and are supported by is guaranteed to be far more embarrassing.

Editor’s Note: The author of this op-ed asked to remain anonymous.

Scholarship student goes for the gold

Scholarship student goes for the gold


In college, completing assignments and making it to class are hard enough. When students manage all of that and end up receiving praise for their work, it is an example of how hard work can pay off.

Pima Community College student, Andrew Paxton, will be remembered as an involved, passionate academic who has worked hard to make his time at PCC count.

He began classes in Fall 2012 and since then has served as an officer for Pima’s Phi Theta Kappa chapter, Alpha Beta Chi, and is president of the Journalism Club. He was editor-in-chief of the Aztec Press for more than a year.

On March 23, Paxton received a prestigious national honor when he was named a 2015 Coca-Cola Community College Academic Team Gold Scholar.

“It was pretty surprising,” Paxton says. “Even more surprising was the reaction I got after the award. I guess I didn’t realize how prestigious the award actually is. I didn’t have much of a social life the last few years. So they didn’t just hand me the scholarships by any means.”

Paxton was one of 50 community college students nationwide to receive top honors from PTK and will receive a $1,500 scholarship and special medallion.

A former president of PTK, Kyra Harris, says her friendship with Paxton was instant and she saw him as her right-hand man.

“I cannot think of anyone who deserves that scholarship more,” she says. “Andrew is ambitious, dedicated and compassionate. Many people are like crabs in a barrel, constantly trying to pull themselves up while they pull others down. Andrew is nothing like that. He understands the value of true collaboration and I would stand beside him for anything.”

In February, Paxton was one of four PCC students named as All-Arizona Academic First Team, earning him a scholarship and two-year Arizona Board of Regents tuition waiver to the University of Arizona.

When Paxton first began his experience at Pima, it was a major turning point in his life.

“I was involved in a road rage incident in 2007,” he says. “I nearly died as a result, and during my convalesce, I realized I wasn’t really living, just existing. I had received a second chance at life and I decided to make the most of it.

“Pima has opened more doors, windows and avenues for me than I could have ever imagined.”

Of Paxton’s many achievements, he says his time at the Aztec Press is his proudest.

“I have been able to meet countless people, and share their stories and experiences,” he said. “Those interactions have shaped me in ways that will influence my life for the rest of my days.”

At the helm of the student newspaper, he led the way to statewide and national awards, increased coverage and reported on Pima news topics with unwavering commitment to the truth.

More important than accolades, Paxton inspired and led student reporters in their own journeys.

“I was able to help train the next wave of journalists on staff,” he said. “Working with a reporter to develop a story and seeing the impact, on the author and the audience, is a very satisfying feeling and one I hope to replicate in the future.”

Harris witnessed the progress Paxton has captained for the organizations he was involved in.

“Pima has been very lucky to have Andrew,” she said.  “I know for a fact both PTK and the Aztec Press wouldn’t have done as well without his leadership and guidance. He has put both of them on the national stage which is good for all of Pima.”

He retains his humility.

“I wouldn’t have been able to enjoy the success I have had so far were it not for my support network of my girlfriend, mother, friends, family, advisors and cat,” he said. “I believe those that stand by us throughout good times and bad are critical to finding not only success, but inner happiness and peace as well.”

Paxton will graduate from Pima on May 21 to pursue a bachelor’s degree in journalism at UA. His plan after college is “world domination.”

“I will be an editor somewhere, probably for my own publication, so I can be my own boss,” he said. “I also will write some books, and probably teach someday. Maybe sell out and go into public relations, but only if I need the money to support my Fabergé egg addiction.”

Paxton hopes to merge his political science interests with his love of journalism.

While he was surprised to receive PTK’s scholarship, he is well aware of the fact that he earned this recognition.

His story of success at Pima just goes to show that the college experience is worth all the long hours and struggles.

Paxton will remain on West Campus as the advertisement manager of the Aztec Press.

Students positive about new Tech Corner

Students positive about new Tech Corner


This semester, Pima Community College rolled out a new Information Technology help desk to assist Pima students facing software troubles.

The Tech Corner, located in the Downtown Campus Learning Commons, helps students with issues on their personal computers ranging from software to web assignments to phone apps.

Chris Williams, a PCC IT specialist, has a bachelor’s degree in computer networking and often staffs the table during the Tech Corner’s hours.

“I enjoy helping students out,” Williams said.  “I worked for Sunnyside school district and I enjoyed helping students and staff, but I needed to do more.”

Tech Corner is a pilot program to determine how beneficial free IT help is for students who may be experiencing trouble that impacts their education. This semester, Tech Corner has helped over 150 students.

Geselle Coe, the learning center coordinator at Downtown Campus, helped put the Tech Corner in action.

“Our mission is to eliminate technological barriers so that we can increase student success and learning outcomes,” she said.

Williams says the need for free IT help arose when his former supervisor, Kevin Milton, realized that some students were dropping or unable to complete courses due to technical difficulties.

“Students were talking about dropping classes because they couldn’t get technology to work and they really had nowhere to go,” Williams said. “So we wanted to set them up with something where they could go get some help and stay in school.”

The Tech Corner now serves roughly 10 students per week, but Williams says the low number comes from a lack of advertising, especially at other Pima campuses.

Williams says his repairs go far beyond the technical aspect, and that many students leave feeling a lot of stress relief once they are no longer having technology trouble with their computers.

“A lot of courses are requiring technological projects,” Coe said. “Students may get frustrated at times with their online assignments, and here is a one stop place where they can come by and sit down and get their questions answered.”

One student even brought her home desktop in for help.

“We set it up on one of the stations here and helped her out,” Williams said. “We do a little bit of everything.”

If the program succeeds, Pima will institute Tech Corners at all campuses and fund full-time positions for the job. In the meantime, 13 employees at Downtown Campus provide service to all PCC students.

Coe said the student reviews in an online survey are encouragingly positive.

“So far, we’ve had really positive responses,” she said. “We get a lot of students who feel more confident in their online classes as well. Before we had a lot of apprehension, but now they know if they run into any problems they can come to the Tech Corner.”

In online feedback surveys, students reported a consistent 80 percent satisfaction rate with the service they received. Student comments contained positive reviews expressing appreciation for the IT help and reduced levels of stress.

The Tech Corner is open 10 a.m.-6 p.m. Monday-Thursday. You can reach them by phone at 206-7094 or at

“I just love helping people,” Williams said. “I like to see somebody go away happy, because now their stuff works.”

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IT Specialist Chris Williams stands in front of the Tech Corner at the Downtown Campus Learning Commons. The help desk assists students with technology problems free of charge. (Nick Meyers/Aztec Press)

DOGPATCH- Angels doing hell work

DOGPATCH- Angels doing hell work


When you pull into Summit View Estates, the area dubbed “Dogpatch,” you pass a sign that reads “No dumping.” It’s riddled with bullet holes. Going down the dirt road, there’s scattered, run-down trailers, piles of worn-out tires, trash bags and miles of desert.

Not far in, there’s a small clearing that contains a five-gallon bucket and a small black trough full of murky water. There’s also two huge make-shift dog bowls brimming with dog food.

Marjorie McKellips pulls out a flowery umbrella and offers to share the little shade it provides. “I love everybody, can’t give me a reason not to,” she says.

McKellips, along with founder Nancy Maddry, runs Angels for Animals, a grass-roots organizations that looks out for the animals in Dogpatch.

McKellips says that the food and water in the clearing are one of two feeding stations.

“Our feeding stations, of course, go to hell in a hand-basket between dogs and people,” she says. “You can see, there’s trash everywhere.”

This time of year, Angels volunteers try to come out three or four times a week, when they have enough help.

McKellips points at the black trough and says, after a couple of weeks, she’s surprised it’s still there.

“Somebody’s going to steal it,” she says. “They always steal it.”

The dogs that run the area keep under any shade they can find during the heat of the day. Some of the dogs have been dumped there and others are owned by residents in the area.

McKellips says many owners don’t maintain proper fencing, and the dogs are allowed to roam free.

Most of these dogs are not neutered, spayed or vaccinated. McKellips says that’s what Angels for Animals is all about.

Dumping dead animals is also very common at Dogpatch. McKellips and the other volunteers at Angels routinely look for bodies.

“We drive through here with our windows open, air conditioning off and our noses peeled. You will smell death, trust me,” McKellips says. “Once you smell it, you never forget it.”

They also look for garbage bags and boxes.

“If there’s bags of garbage, we go check and see if it’s garbage—or is it a body?” she says.

A few hundred yards down the road, there’s a dead dog, clearly visible. Its body is stiff, its head at an odd angle, mouth open. Flies surround it. A strip of neon flagging-tape is tied around an extended leg and another is on the tree above.

If Angels finds a body away from the road, they try to move it to the road to be picked up. They use the flagging-tape to help Pima Animal Care Center find the dead animals.

McKellips said she called PACC about this dog two weeks ago.

Jose Chavez, enforcement operations manager at PACC, says they do not do a regular patrol of the area but that PACC responds to more than 100 calls from Summit each year pertaining to dead and stray dogs, dog bites and animal welfare.

Chavez didn’t know anything about that particular dog, but he says that PACC makes a point of picking up reported dead animals as soon as possible.

Farther up the road, there’s a grave marker—a crude cement headstone with a man’s name. A faded, yellow construction vest is slung over it. McKellips says the area used to be full of trash and discarded furniture.

On the other side of the road, McKellips points out a fresh death.

“He wasn’t there Sunday, but he’s there today,” she says.

The dog’s body is bloated and covered in flies. Angels volunteer Zach O’Hern was alerted to it by the smell while driving along the road that morning.

O’Hern and his wife, Sam, started working with Angels about a month ago.

They are two of eight volunteers currently working the Dogpatch. McKellips says they’re blessed to have that many.

“People come and go,” she says. “It’s an ugly place. We go through volunteers faster than some people change their underwear.”

McKellips has been working with Angels for five and a half years.

The first time she came out to Dogpatch, she came across bags full of dead roosters from a cockfighting pit, which Angels eventually helped get shut down.

Angels volunteers talk with Summit residents in their yards and homes. They offer them help getting their animals spayed, neutered, vaccinated and licensed.

Edgar Giron is a Summit resident. Two dogs run around his yard. Someone throws a deflated soccer ball to one of them. It just jumps back and stares at the ball.

“Most of the dogs around here don’t know what it means to play,” McKellips says.

There is another dog under Giron’s house with a litter of puppies she birthed that morning.

McKellips tells Giron she’s set up an appointment to spay and neuter the grown dogs and that there will be a foster home for the mother and her puppies soon. She asks if he still has enough dog food.

Giron and his cousin work in the front yard. They have witnessed people dumping dogs. Recently, Giron saw a man in a truck on the road behind his house.

“He opened the truck and started taking dogs out,” Giron says. “A lot of dogs, there was like nine of them.”

Sometimes at night, he sees the headlights of cars stop down the road where there are no houses. The next day he’ll see more stray dogs. Giron and his cousin have also found dead horses.

Giron says people dump dogs because they have more than they can take care of or because their female dogs had puppies.

Angels only takes a dog out of Dogpatch if it is badly injured, sick or too young to survive on its own. They’ve had to take three litters of puppies out in the last week.

O’Hern and his wife found and rescued most of those puppies.

“For us, every time we pull dogs, it’s not so much sad as it is satisfying and motivating,” he says. “It’s something bigger than yourself. These animals, they literally have no one. And if they did, they trusted someone and someone just threw them away.”

McKellips says they never intended on being a rescue operation. “It just became apparent there was no choice.”

It is not usually certain how the dead dogs that Angels finds in Dogpatch died.

“We have no way of knowing,” McKellips says. “If there’s enough of it left to really take a good look at the body, we try to make sure. Are their legs bound? Is there a gunshot wound? Is there anything visible that we can call the Animal Cruelty Taskforce on?”

There often is.

Many of the dead animals may not be a product of animal cruelty but rather a lack of means and understanding, says Mike Duffy, ACT officer and co-chair at the Humane Society of Southern Arizona. When an animal gets sick and dies on a property, the residents of Summit don’t understand what to do with it.

“But they know there’s a place in the roadway, at the intersection of Country Club and the Old Vale Connection,” he says. “If they dump it there, somebody takes it away.”

Duffy says the residents of Summit generally don’t have the money to pay for trash collection or county landfill disposal fees, which would be viable ways to remove a dead animal. And they can’t call PACC to pick it up from their property because the dogs rarely have the legally required licensure and rabies vaccination.

Licensing fees vary from $8 to $100 depending on many factors, among them the dog’s age and if it’s fixed. Licensure needs to be renewed yearly, and late fees of $10 to $36 are applied for not complying.

The HSSA offers walk-in vaccinations for $13, though getting to the clinic may be hard for some Summit residents.

“They would be responsible for the fees and fines involved for having an animal that was not vaccinated and was not licensed,” Duffy says.

Failure to license is a Class 2 misdemeanor, punishable by a fine of $150 to $750, four months in jail, two years’ probation or any combination thereof. The fine is reduced to $75 if a license is obtained within 15 days of the complaint.

Duffy is not certain that PACC would actually cite residents for these violations. “I think the people think that would happen so it makes them that much more reluctant to get the government involved,” he says.

The HSSA has set up spay and neuter clinics in Summit as a way to educate residents. They also put literature about animal care in the schools, where they know many residents will see it. It’s unclear if these initiatives have helped.

Duffy says that putting food and water out, as Angels does, may actually be perpetuating the problem.

“The folks out there that don’t have money for dog food, they open the gate and let their dog go because they know they can go down the street to where that pile of food is and get something to eat there,” he says.

Members of ACT go to Summit on a regular basis, as well as members of the sheriff’s department and other organizations.

“Plus, the Pima County Animal Care Center has an office here that’s responsible to drive through there a couple times a week,” Duffy says.

Duffy says that because those other organizations patrol the area, the HSSA no longer goes there.

“The complaints continue to come in to us, but the thing is, we really don’t know how valid the complaints are because the people that are finding the animals out there aren’t that religious about filing police reports,” he says. “If there’s not a police report on file, it didn’t happen.”

Last year, Angels for Animals found two young dogs that were shot, but alive. The HSSA gave both the dogs amputations and found them homes.

McKellips heard from a Summit resident that one of the ranchers in the area had shot the dogs.

She says a lot of the residents are fearful of police, and some are even fearful of their neighbors.

“If you’ve got a neighbor who’s shooting dogs because they’re on their ranch, you’re not going to tell anybody if you’re being threatened with losing your life because you said something,” she says.

McKellips says everybody knows everybody around there and most of them have gotten to know Angels pretty well.

“They like us because we don’t turn anybody in,” she says. “We don’t make them talk to police.”

She also finds campsites in the area and on occasion, drugs.

“You’ll also find a lot of paraphernalia from drug drops,” she says. “We have come out here and found full drug drops that hadn’t been picked up yet. You back away rather quickly and calmly, and you just go away and leave it alone.”

Ranch cows and bulls also roam the land and die on it. Angels volunteers have come across sick and injured horses in need of help. They’ve found dead goats in the wash. Last year, they found a huge dead boar.

One night McKellips had to stay late because of what she found.

“There was a horse down there, well, pieces thereof,” she says. “So I had to wait for the Animal Cruelty Taskforce to get out here.”

She thinks the horse had been cut up because it was too heavy to move in one piece.

“I’m assuming,” she says. “I have learned in five years you can assume anything you want, you’re never going to freakin’ understand this.”

One time, just off of Swan Road, they found a dead dog glued to a board. It had been propped up, facing the road. Someone had put a burrito in its mouth.

“We’re hoping it was dead when it was done,” McKellips says. “God, I hope.”

By the time she got to it, most of the body had been eaten by animals.

McKellips says despite everything, there is goodness in Summit.

“There are some very, very nice people out here,” she says. “They just don’t have the means to do a lot of the things that they should do, so we help with that.”

Average family size in Summit is larger than the average for Pima County and the nation, but the average income is less than one-third, according to a report for the Pima County Health Department by an evaluation team through the University of Arizona.

Angels has brought vaccination clinics to Summit and performed the vaccinations themselves. It’s getting harder for them to do that though. McKellips say a lot of veterinarians and PACC do not accept those vaccines as viable.

State law requires the rabies vaccination to be given by a licensed veterinarian. When it comes to parvovirus and distemper vaccinations, if they are not properly stored and administered, they won’t provide the proper immunity.

McKellips says people need to have more pride in their community and join in the effort to stop the dumping.

“Tell their neighbors,” she says. “Tell everybody that they can about the problem in that area and that they want it to stop. Take down license plates if they see something. You’ve got to stop being afraid to tell the police when you see these things happening. It’s education, spay and neuter, and taking responsibility.”

Angels for Animals is always looking for donations, volunteers and fosters.

They have a running tab at Valley Animal Hospital, where they make regular payments. They also need gas cards.

People can send gas cards or donations of any kind to Angels for Animals Tucson, 1121 S Eli Dr., Tucson, AZ 85710.

For more information visit the webpage, visit the Angels for Animals Tucson Facebook page or call 490-5492.

“I don’t think in my lifetime we’ll ever not have work out here, unfortunately,” McKellips says.

“This is hell work. This is ugly, dirty, disgusting, hell work. Why do we do it? Cause nobody else is going to do it.”


Marjorie McKellips talks with a reporter about the work she routinely does in Dogpatch. (Larry Gaurano/Aztec Press)


During a recent visit, Angels for Animals founder Nancy Maddry feeds one of the dogs that roams the Dogpatch. (Ben Barocas/Aztec Press)


Dead dogs like this one are found in Dogpatch on a regular basis. Reasons for death are often preventable diseases, neglect and abuse. (Ben Barocas/Aztec Press)

Struggling to balance work, class

Struggling to balance work, class


From classes to hours of homework and balancing a social life, the college experience is a demanding time in many students’ lives.

Throw a work schedule into the mix and responsibilities reach a maximum stress level.

Although the demands for working students are high, the motivation to keep moving through the long days are worthwhile with help from family and friends. Personal goals help students continue to move forward.

For 22-year-old Pima Community College student Troy Terry, the balance between working two jobs, attending classes and trying to maintain a healthy and active lifestyle has been quite the challenge. But even through the nonstop days, he remains motivated.

“My mom is a huge motivation for me,” Terry said. “Unfortunately, she passed away last May. She was my motivation to keep moving and to never stop. She would always tell me, whatever you want to do, you can do, just put your mind to it and always stay motivated.”

A normal week for Terry consists of working roughly 55 hours between GNC and Hi Fi Kitchen and Cocktails, attending classes three days a week through PCC’s police academy, completing anywhere from 7-10 hours of homework and trying to keep up with eating well and working out.

“The hardest part is getting my homework done and turned in on time,” Terry said. “They want us at a high standard, so sometimes I can turn in an assignment, that if I would of had a little more time, I could have done it a lot better. I tend to rush a lot of things.”

According to the U.S. Department of Education, more than 78 percent of undergraduate students work a rough estimate of 30 hours per week, while attending classes. About 25 percent of those students work full-time jobs.

PCC counselor Todd Slaney can relate personally to the difficulties that many of his students face while trying to  balance a work and school load.

“You have to sacrifice something,” Slaney said. “I wasn’t able to sacrifice school or work, so it was having a social life. I wasn’t able to go out three nights a week and be successful at school. I had to minimize what I did with my friends and even my family, sometimes.”

A survey from Citigroup and Seventeen magazine found that many colleges recommend or even mandate that a student’s work schedule be limited to no more than 10-15 hours per week.

Colleges want to see their students succeed academically but unfortunately for many students, paying bills and tuitions is a major factor and anything less than 30 hours is not a plausible amount.

Slaney said managing both loads is easier if a student is going to school part time and working part time. It becomes more overwhelming when both work and school are full time loads.

When a small amount of time is stretched between two time-consuming activities, a high rate of success is less likely. Something must be sacrificed in order to maintain balance.

“Often when I talk to students, they need to drop a class because they weren’t being very successful in that class,” Slaney said.

“They tell me that they can’t reduce their work hours because that’s what pays their mortgage or rent or what puts food on the table,” he said. “Often when they do have to let something go or give something up, it’s school, unfortunately.”

An online article, “Learning and Earning: Working in College,” from weighs the pros and cons of students attending classes while working. The report notes statistical differences based on the number of hours a student is working.

“Part-time student employment may have beneficial effects: for example, an on-campus research position may spark a student’s interest in further academic programs or provide important work experience that will improve future labor market prospects,” it says.

However, the report also finds that students who work 35 hours or more may suffer academically.

● 55 percent have negative effects on their studies.

● 40 percent limit their class schedules.

● 36 percent are limited on class choices.

● 30 percent limit the number of classes they take.

● 26 percent limit access to the library.

For Terry, this type of strict life structure came slightly easier to him because of his athletic background and commitment to playing football throughout his high school career.

“Football definitely helped prepare me with my time management,” Terry       said. “Everything in high school is class, then practice, then homework, dinner, shower and sleep. You wake back up and repeat.”

It’s not an easy task for students to consume everything that has been placed on their plate but with the right amount of dedication, time management skills and willingness to sacrifice extracurricular activities, the results can bring great benefits.

“Following a schedule is important and just make sure you have everything written down,” Terry said.

“Just make sure you have everything scheduled out,” he added. “That’s huge because it makes it a lot easier to manage and stay on top of grades, even if you have to sacrifice a couple hours at work to get things done.”

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(Aztec Press photo illustration by Tanisha Knutzen)


The writer behind Writing 101

The writer behind Writing 101


He sits in a darkened room, fingers hovering over a keyboard while sweat drips down shadowed cheeks, concentration enhanced by gentle Italian techno music. Shell shocked and numb, he realizes his book is finished.

Writing 101 instructor Andrew Foster, 34, has worked part time at Pima Community College for eight years. He said teaching writing helps keep his mind fresh when it comes to his own writing.

“Last week I finished a memoir I’ve been working on for several years,” he said. “Proud but sad my baby’s all grown up and gone.”

Foster has drawn up a dream list of 20 agents and has started the process of querying them. “I need to find an agent that has had memoirs and biographies published before,” he said.

The first chapter of his memoir was recently published in a Baltimore publication, Cobalt Magazine.

“This chapter was rejected at only three or four other magazines before Cobalt took it,” Foster said. “I feel pretty lucky on this one. My usual rate for acceptances is about one in every 100 submissions. If you want to be published, you have to get used to constant rejection.”

One of his first publications was a poem in the Colorado Review in early 2000. He has also been published in a Tucson literary journal, Spork.

Foster submitted a chapter of his memoir to this year’s Tucson Festival of Books writing contest. He was a runner-up for the grand prize and received a chance to participate in a literary workshop.

The workshop included talks led by several well known authors, including author and poet Ray Gonzalez of the University of Minnesota.

Foster enjoys reading both nonfiction and fiction.

He is currently reading “Their Eyes Were Watching God,” a novel by Zora Neale Hurston. Written in the ‘30s, it is a classic in African-American literature.

His favorite authors are William Shakespeare and James Joyce. He has the full collection of Joyce’s books, including “Ulysses,” “Finnegans Wake” and “Dubliners.”

Foster likes to teach by using multiple visuals in his Downtown Campus classroom and takes time to provide detailed explanations.

“He uses his personal time to help us with our assignments,” said Charity Brian, 21. “He makes it easier to understand the concepts of writing. He is a good communicator.”

Brian is in her first semester at PCC and is taking WRT 101 as part of the requirements for her major in law and criminology. She takes three other classes and is exhausted by the end of her day, but she looks forward to her writing class.

“He has opened my eyes to new creative writing techniques and ideas,” she said.

Foster has a family connection with words. His father, Michael Foster, studied languages and traveled to Canada to study Cayuga Indians.

Foster’s father met his mother, a native Canadian, and they married shortly after. Two years later, Foster was born in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

He was raised in Norwich, Vt., and in Philadelphia. While attending a boarding school in the suburbs of Philadelphia, Foster participated in the school newspaper and in creative writing workshops.

He knew he liked writing in elementary school and decided to become a professional writer during high school.

When not teaching or writing, Foster enjoys a game of chess.

“I’m a total beginner, but it’s fascinating,” he said. “It’s humbling.”

He is also a whiskey aficionado.

“It’s actually a much less expensive hobby than wine tasting,” he said. “A $50 bottle of wine will last you one night but a $50 bottle of single malt scotch can be slowly enjoyed over many months.”

Extending his passion for teaching outside of the traditional classroom, Foster recently taught a WRT 101 class for employees of Tucson Electric Power. TEP not only paid the tuition, but also paid the employees for each hour they spent in the classroom.

“WRT 101 was a required step in their process of becoming journeymen electricians,” Foster said.

What does writing mean to Foster?

“Writing is the secret life of the soul, encoded in this thing we call language, which was the first virtual reality that humans invented,” he said.

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Writing 101 instructor Andrew Foster answers his students’ questions. Foster, who just finished writing a memoir, says teaching writing keeps his mind fresh for his own work. (Aztec Press photos by Shana Rose)


Pg09-Foster solo

Instructor Andrew Foster explains the daily lesson to his Writing 101 class at Downtown Campus. (Aztec Press photos by Shana Rose)


The high cost of DUIs

The high cost of DUIs


Making mistakes is a part of life but some mistakes cost more than just a lesson learned.

A promising future for “Joe Smith” changed dramatically after he was convicted twice for driving under the influence of alcohol.

“Pretty much, it’s a life sentence,” he said. “One poor decision changed my life, to an extreme.”

Smith is a real person, but asked that his true name not be used.

College classes and studying filled his days before the convictions, while nights revolved around alcohol and partying with friends.

“I was in school when I got the DUI,” he said. “I had to leave because I couldn’t afford to stay.”

In one arrest, Smith registered a blood alcohol level of .289. The legal limit is .08.

“It took away any career I could have potentially had,” he said. “I had the potential to be a Navy Seal. I passed all the tests, at the top of my class. I had the potential to be in the Air Force Academy.”

The DUI convictions eliminated those possibilities.

“I was forced to change my career path to something more fast-paced, money-wise,” he said.

Most college students have heard the catchy slogans: Don’t drink and drive. Drive hammered, get nailed.

It seems the slogans haven’t convinced student to stop, however. One in five still drives under the influence, according to

Perhaps a look at the costs involved would carry more impact.

A first-time DUI conviction can cost $10,000 over time, according to statistics compiled by the law offices of David Michael Cantor.

That approximates the cost of enrolling full time for five semesters at Pima Community College.

Smith said his price tag was much higher.

“It probably cost me a little bit over $120,000,” he said. “By now, I could have bought a house and a boat.”

Americans spend $62 billion annually on college tuition and expenses, according to The Atlantic. By comparison, Mothers’ Against Drunk Driving says the U.S. spends nearly $199 billion yearly on drunk-driving costs.

An article in The College Investigator by Robert Farrington touches on ways a DUI can impact a student’s college career.

“Generally, the police report the DUI to the college,” Farrington wrote. “As a result, you may lose your scholarship funding if you are currently on scholarship. You may also lose your housing if you reside in campus housing. Most severe of all, you may be expelled from the college.”

Time lost during DUI processing also holds potential to hurt a student’s finances. Anyone arrested will spend a minimum of 24 hours behind jail cell doors.

Additional time off work is required as the case works its way through the court system.

Upon conviction, some students lose their driver’s license. For others, freedom to drive might only be unlocked with an interlock ignition device.

An interlock ignition device, similar to a breathalyzer, requires the driver to breathe into the device before starting the vehicle.

If the device detects any traces of alcohol, the car won’t start.

Arizona is a zero-tolerance state, which means a driver could be convicted of a DUI while driving under any level of alcohol impairment.

In simpler terms, a beer at a local restaurant could quickly go from costing $4 to reaching thousands of dollars spent, hundreds of hours taken and lifelong consequences.

With these kind of statistics, a decision to opt out of driving seems obvious and cost effective.

“I would have paid any amount of ridiculous cab ride ever in existence,” Smith said. “I would pay a thousand dollars for any cab ride before I ever drink and drive again. It would be cheaper than going through the process of the court and all the other stuff.”

His mistakes changed his outlook on life and caused a drop in his confidence level, Smith said.

“I went down a bad road for awhile,” he said. “I started drinking more because I was depressed.”

The DUI convictions also caused a rift with people who loved him.

“The negative consequences of seeing a loved one hurt is always a bad thing,” he said. “I would never choose to put anyone through that but it took me two tries to figure it out.”

Smith thinks he sees a dim light waiting for him at the end of the road.

“I’m now a different person,” he said. “I was a dumb person for doing it originally but a better person now.”

It took Smith two tries, but he says he has learned an expensive life lesson.

“I will never do that again,” he said. “I have never gotten behind the wheel, even after having a glass of wine. And I just really hope nobody chooses to drink and drive. It’s, like, six bucks to get an Uber.”


(Aztec Press photo illustration by Tanisha Knutzzen)